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 您所在的位置:内蒙古中公考研 > 备考资料 > 考研试题 > 2021全国硕士研究生考试考研英语一部分试题及答案

2021全国硕士研究生考试考研英语一部分试题及答案

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2021全国硕士研究生考试考研英语一部分试题及答案

考研是很多本科应届生的选择,而选择考研院校和专业是考研的第一步,很多同学还是很想在研究生阶段选择一个更好的学校提升一下。今天跟内蒙古中公考研小编一起了解一下“2021全国硕士研究生考试考研英语一部分试题及答案”,希望能够帮助到小伙伴们。

Section I Use of English

Directions:

Read the following text. Choose the best word (s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

Fluid intelligence is the type of intelligence that has to do with short-term memory and the ability to think quickly, logically, and abstractly in order to solve new problems. It 1 in young adulthood, levels out for a period of time, and then 2 starts to slowly decline as we age. But 3 aging is inevitable, scientists are finding out that certain changes in brain function may not be.

One study found that muscle loss and the 4 of body fat around the abdomen are associated with a decline in fluid intelligence. This suggests the 5 that lifestyle factors might help prevent or 6 this type of decline.

The researchers looked at data that 7 measurements of lean muscle and abdominal fat from more than 4,000 middle-to-older-aged men and women and 8 that data to reported changes in fluid intelligence over a six-year period. They found that middle-aged people 9 higher measures of abdominal fat 10 worse on measures of fluid intelligence as the years 11 .

For women, the association may be 12 to changes in immunity that resulted from excess abdominal fat; in men, the immune system did not appear to be 13 . It is hoped that future studies could 14 these differences and perhaps lead to different 15 for men and women.

16 , there are steps you can 17 to help reduce abdominal fat and maintain lean muscle mass as you age in order to protect both your physical and mental 18 . The two highly recommended lifestyle approaches are maintaining or increasing your 19 of aerobic exercise and following Mediterranean-style 20 that is high in fiber and eliminates highly processed foods.

1. [A] pauses [B] returns [C] peaks [D] fades

2. [A] alternatively [B]formally [C]accidentally [D] generally

3. [A] while [B] since [C] once [D] until

4. [A] detection [B] accumulation [C] consumption [D] separation

5. [A] possibility [B] decision [C] goal [D] requirement

6. [A] delay [B] ensure [C] seek [D] utilize

7. [A] modified [B] supported [C] included [D] predicted

8. [A] devoted [B] compared [C] converted [D] applied

9. [A] with [B] above [C] by [D] against

10. [A] lived [B] managed [C] scored [D] played

11. [A] ran out [B] set off [C] drew in [D] went by

12. [A] superior [B] attributable [C] parallel [D] resistant

13. [A] restored [B] isolated [C] involved [D] controlled

14. [A] alter [B] spread [C] remove [D] explain

15. [A] compensations [B] symptoms [C] demands [D] treatments

16. [A] Likewise [B] Meanwhile [C] Therefore [D] Instead

17. [A] change [B] watch [C] count [D] take

18. [A] well-being [B] process [C] formation [D] coordination

19. [A] level [B] love [C] knowledge [D] space

20. [A] design [B] routine [C] diet [D] prescription

1. 【答案】C(peaks)

【解析】逻辑关系题。and then提示顺承,借助slowly decline(慢慢下降)可知,C项peaks(达到最高点)符合原文逻辑关系,即流动智力在成年早期达到峰值,之后很长一段时间趋于稳定,之后随着年龄增长,慢慢下降。本题答案为C项。

干扰选项:A项pauses(暂停),B项returns(返回)和D项fades(逐渐消失),均不符合原文逻辑关系。

2. 【答案】D(generally)

【解析】语境题。比较各选项语义,A项

alternatively(二者择一地),B项formally(形式上地),C项accidentally(偶然地)和D项generally(通常),其中,D项generally(通常)最符合原文语义。本题答案为D项。

3. 【答案】A(while)

【解析】逻辑关系题。观察选项可知,本题考查句内逻辑关系,比较aging is inevitable和scientists are finding out that … may not be可知,inevitable和may not be提示语义相反,即“衰老不可避免”,与“科学家们发现大脑功能的某些变化可能并非不可避免”二者语义相反。A项while(尽管)提示让步,符合原文逻辑关系。本题答案为A项。

干扰选项:B项since(由于)提示因果关系,C项once(一旦)提示条件关系,D项until(到……为止)提示顺承关系,均不符合原文逻辑关系。

4. 【答案】B(accumulation)

【解析】逻辑关系题。and提示并列,muscle loss和the 4 of body fat around the abdomen(腹部脂肪的 4 )互相并列,借助muscle loss(肌肉流失)可知,B项accumulation(积累)符合原文逻辑关系,即,肌肉流失和腹部脂肪堆积。本题答案为B项。

干扰选项:A项detection(侦查),C项consumption(消耗)和D项separation(分离),均不符合原文逻辑关系。

5. 【答案】A(possibility)

【解析】语境题。This指代上句的研究发现,本句继续介绍研究发现。比较各选项语义,A项possibility(可能性),B项decision(决定),C项goal(目标)和D项requirement(要求),可知,A项possibility符合原文语义,即,这表明生活方式因素可能有助预防这种下降的可能性。本题答案为A项。

6. 【答案】A(delay)

【解析】逻辑关系题。or提示并列,借助prevent(预防)可知,A项delay(延期)符合原文逻辑关系,即预防或延迟流动智力下降。本题答案为A项。

干扰选项:B项ensure(保证),C项seek(寻求)和D项utilize(利用),均不符合原文逻辑关系。

7. 【答案】C(included)

【解析】语境题。本题考查连接data(数据)和measurements(测量结果)的动词词义。比较各选项语义,A项modified(修改),B项supported(支持),C项included(包括)和D项predicted(预 测),可知C项included符合原文语义,即研究人员查看了包括4,000多名中老年男性和女性瘦肌肉群和腹部脂肪测量结果的数据。本题答案为C项。

8. 【答案】B(compared)

【解析】逻辑关系题。and提示并列,looked at data和 8 that data to reported changes互相并列,借助looked at(查看)可知,B项compared(比较)符合原文逻辑关系,且能与介词to构成固定搭配,compare … to…(将……与……相比)。本题答案为B项。

干扰选项:其余各项与介词to构成固定搭配,A项devoted … to…(把……用于),C项converted … to…(把……转化为……),D项applied … to…(把……应用于……),均不符合原文逻辑关系。

9. 【答案】A(with)

【解析】固定搭配题。观察选项可知,本题考查介词用法。比较各选项,A项with(带有……),B项above(在……上面),C项by(通过……)和D项against(与……相反),可知,A项with连接higher measures of abdominal fat,作后置定语修饰people,符合原文语义,即,有着更高腹部脂肪的中年人。本题答案为A项。

10. 【答案】C(scored)

【解析】语境题。比较各选项语义,A项lived(生活),B项managed(管理),C项scored(得分)和D项played(玩耍),可知,C项scored符合原文语义,即,他们发现,有着更多腹部脂肪的中年人,在流动智力方面得分较低。本题答案为C项。

11. 【答案】D(went by)

【解析】固定搭配题。借助as the years(随着年岁……),并比较各选项语义,A项ran out(用完),B项set off(出发),C项drew in(引诱)和D项went by(时间逝去),可知,D项went by符合原文语义。本题答案为D项。

12. 【答案】B(attributable)

【解析】语境题。结合resulted from excess abdominal fat(腹部脂肪过多所致),并比较各选项与介词to构成的搭配,A项superior to(比……好的),B项attributable to(可归因于……),C项parallel to(与……平行的)和D项resistant to(不受……损害的),可知,B项attributable符合原文语义,即,对于女性来说,这种关联(腹部脂肪越高,流动智力方面的得分越低)可能要归因于腹部脂肪过多所致的免疫力变化。本题答案为B项。

13. 【答案】C(involved)

【解析】逻辑关系题。For women与in men提示对比关系,借助the association may be 12 to changes in immunity(这种关联可能 12 免疫力变化)可知,C项involved(使成为必然部分,与be连用时,可理解为“与……有关”)符合原文语义,即,对男性来说,(这种关联)似乎与免疫系统无关;且符合原文逻辑。本题答案为C项。

干扰选项:A项restored(被恢复),B项isolated(被孤立)和D项controlled(被控制),均不符合原文逻辑关系。

14. 【答案】D(explain)

【解析】语境题。本题考查连接future studies和these differences的动词语义,而these differences是指上句中男性和女性的流动智力得分,与腹部脂肪堆积所致的免疫力变化有关与无关的区别。现有研究只发现了这种区别,而背后的原因,只能寄希望于未来相关研究。D项explain(解释)符合原文语义,即,希望未来研究能解释这些区别。本题答案为D项。

干扰选项:A项alter(改变),B项spread(展开)和C项remove(去掉),均不符合原文语义。

15. 【答案】D(treatments)

【解析】语境题。借助lead to different 15 for men and women(促成针对女性和男性的不同 15 ),并结合these differences所指的免疫力与流体智力间二者间的关联在男性和女性中体现不同,可知,D项treatments(疗法)符合原文语义,即,或许会促成针对女性和男性的不同疗法。本题答案为D项。

干扰选项:A项compensations(补偿),B项symptoms(症状)和C项demands(要求),均不符合原文语义。

16. 【答案】B(Meanwhile)

【解析】逻辑关系题。观察选项可知,本题考查句间逻辑关系。比较上句与本句发现:从内容上说,上句为对未来研究的期待,本句为目前可采取的措施(steps);从文章段落结构来说,上段为研究结论,本段为研究带来的启示。前后两句呈现研究的不同方面,体现对比关系。观察选项,B项Meanwhile(与此同时)符合原文逻辑关系,即期待未来进一步研究的同时,目前也可以采取一些措施,二者方向不同,但可同时进行。本题答案为B项。

干扰选项:A项Likewise(同样地)提示并列关系,C项Therefore(因此)提示因果关系,D项Instead(相反地)提示转折关系,均不符合原文逻辑关系。

17. 【答案】D(take)

【解析】固定搭配题。take steps(采取措施)为固定搭配,且符合原文语义,即,您可以采取一些措施来帮助减少腹部脂肪并保持瘦肌肉群。本题答案为D项。

干扰选项:A项change(改变),B项watch(观察)和C项count(数),均不能与steps构成符合原文语义的固定搭配。

18. 【答案】A(well-being)

【解析】语境题。由protect both your physical and mental …(保护您身体和心理的……)可知,A项well-being(健康)符合原文语义,即,为了保护您的身心健康。本题答案为A项。

干扰选项:B项process(过程),C项formation(形成)和D项coordination(协调),均不符合原文语义。

19. 【答案】A(level)

【解析】语境题。结合aerobic exercise(有氧运动),并比较各选项,A项level(水平),B项love(热爱),C项knowledge(知识)和D项space(空间),可知,A项符合原文语义,即,维持或提高有氧运动水平。本题答案为A项。

20. 【答案】C(diet)

【解析】逻辑关系题。and提示并列,借助exercise(锻炼),并结合空格后high in fiber(高纤维)和eliminates highly processed foods(去除高度加工的食品),可知,C项diet(日常饮食)符合原文逻辑,即,两种强烈推荐的生活方式分别为:维持或提高有氧运动水平,以及遵循高纤维、去除高度加工食品的地中海式饮食习惯。本题答案为C项。

干扰选项:A项design(设计),B项routine(常规)和D项prescription(药方),均不符合原文逻辑关系。

Section II Reading Comprehension

Part A

Directions:

Read the following four texts. Answer the questions after each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)

Text 1

How can the train operators possibly justify yet another increase to rail passenger fares? It has become a grimly reliable annual ritual: every January the cost of travelling by train rises, imposing a significant extra burden on those who have no option but to use the rail network to get to work or otherwise. This year’s rise, an average of 2.7 per cent, may be a fraction lower than last year’s, but it is still well above the official Consumer Price Index (CPI) measure of inflation.

Successive governments have permitted such increases on the grounds that the cost of investing in and running the rail network should be borne by those who use it, rather than the general taxpayer. ...? Equally, there is a sense that the travails of commuters in the South East, many of whom will face among the biggest rises, have received too much attention compared to those who must endure the relatively poor infrastructure of the Midlands and the North.

However, over the past 12 months, those commuters have also experienced some of the worst rail strikes in years. ...The responsibility for the latest wave of strikes rests on the unions. However, there is a strong case that those who have been worst affected by industrial action should receive compensation for the disruption they have suffered.

The Government has pledged to change the law to introduce a minimum service requirement so that, even when strikes occur, ..., more investment is needed, but passengers will not be willing to pay more indefinitely if they must also endure cramped, unreliable services, punctuated by regular chaos when timetables are changed, or planned maintenance is managed incompetently. The threat of nationalisation may have been seen off for now, but it will return with a vengeance if the justified anger of passengers is not addressed in short order.

21. The author holds that this year’s increase in rail passengers fares ______.

A. will ease train operators’ burden

B. has kept pace with inflation

C. is a big surprise to commuters

D. remains an unreasonable measure

22. The stockbroker in Paragraph 2 is used to stand for ______.

A. car drivers

B. rail travellers

C. local investors

D. ordinary taxpayers

23. It is indicated in Paragraph 3 that train operators ______.

A. are offering compensation to commuters

B. are trying to repair relations with the unions

C. have failed to provide an adequate service

D. have suffered huge losses owing to the strikes

24. If unable to calm down passengers, the railways may have to face ______.

A. the loss of investment

B. the collapse of operations

C. a reduction of revenue

D. a change of ownership

25. Which of the following would be the best title for the text?

A. Who Are to Blame for the Strikes?

B. Constant Complaining Doesn’t Work

C. Can Nationalisation Bring Hope?

D. Ever-Rising Fares Aren’t Sustainable

21. 【答案】D(remains an unreasonable measure)

【解析】本题为细节题。根据题干关键词rail passengers fares定位到第一段①句。①句没有体现作者的观点,因此往下看一句,定位到②句:It has become a grimly reliable annual ritual ... imposing a significant extra burden on those...由grimly(冷酷地,讨厌地)和a significant extra burden(一个巨大的额外负担)可知,作者对铁路乘客车费上涨的态度是负面的。再根据题干关键词this year’s increase定位到第一段③句:This year’s rise, an average of 2.7 per cent, may be a fraction lower than last year’s, but it is still well above the official Consumer Price Index (CPI) measure of inflation.(今年平均2.7%的上涨,也许比去年的上涨稍微低一些,但是它仍然远远高于官方消费者物价指数衡量的通货膨胀程度)。由此进一步确定车费上涨是unreasonable(不合理的)。所以本题选D。

22. 【答案】B(rail travellers)

【解析】本题为例证题。根据题干关键词stockbroker定位到例子所在句,即第二段②句:Why ... should a car-driving pensioner ... have to subsidise the daily commute of a stockbroker...?(为什么一个开车的养老金领取者必须要补贴一个股票经纪人的日常通勤呢?)再找到前面的论点句:Successive governments have permitted such increases on the grounds that the cost of investing in and running the rail network should be borne by those who use it, rather than the general taxpayer(历届政府允许这种上涨,因为投资和运营铁路网的成本应该由使用它的人们来承担,而不是一般纳税人)。这段论述认为,没有使用铁路网的一般纳税人如开车的养老金领取者不应该承担铁路网成本,使用铁路网的人如股票经纪人才应该承担此成本。定位句中的stockbroker指的就是论点句中的those who use it。所以本题选B。

23. 【答案】C(have failed to provide an adequate service)

【解析】本题为细节题。根据题干关键词train operators定位到第三段②句:It is all very well train operators trumpeting the improvements they are making to the network, but passengers should be able to expect a basic level of service for the substantial sums they are now paying to travel(火车运营商宣扬他们对铁路网作出的改进无可非议,但考虑到乘客如今为出行支付的大量费用,他们理应能够期待基本水平的服务)。可见,火车运营商没能提供合格的服务。所以本题选C。

24. 【答案】D(a change of ownership)

【解析】本题为细节题。根据题干关键词If unable to calm down passengers定位到第四段④句:The threat of nationalisation may have been seen off for now, but it will return with a vengeance if the justified anger of passengers is not addressed in short order(国有化的威胁也许暂时可以避免,但是,如果乘客的正当愤怒不能被立即解决,这种威胁会卷土重来)。If unable to calm down passengers是if the justified anger of passengers is not addressed in short order的同义表达。可见,如果铁路公司不能让乘客镇静下来,铁路公司将会面临国有化的威胁,即所有权的变更。所以本题选D。

25. 【答案】D(Ever-Rising Fares Aren’t Sustainable)

【解析】本题为主旨大意题。文章首段提出铁路乘客车费再次上涨的问题,即文章讨论的主题;二段简单阐述历届政府允许车费上涨的理由;三至四段聚焦于乘客所付车费和享受到的服务不对等的问题,作者认为乘客应该受到补偿,英国铁路服务标准必须得到保障,并指出如果服务得不到保障,乘客将不会无止境地支付更多车费。D项中的Ever-Rising Fares(不断上涨的车费)是文章讨论的主题,Aren’t Sustainable(是不可持续的)是作者的观点。D项完整地概括了全文内容。所以本题选D。

Text 2

Last year marked the third year in a row of when Indonesia’s bleak rate of deforestation has slowed in pace. One reason for the turnaround may be the country’s antipoverty program.

In 2007, Indonesia started phasing in a program that gives money to its poorest residents under certain conditions, such as requiring people to keep kids in school or get regular medical care. Called conditional cash transfers or CCTs, these social assistance programs are designed to reduce inequality and break the cycle of poverty. ... In Indonesia, the program has provided enough food and medicine to substantially reduce severe growth problems among children.

But CCT programs don’t generally consider effects on the environment. In fact, poverty alleviation and environmental protection are often viewed as conflicting goals, says Paul Ferraro, an economist at Johns Hopkins University.

That’s because economic growth can be correlated with environmental degradation, while protecting the environment is sometimes correlated with greater poverty. However, those correlations don’t prove cause and effect. The only previous study analyzing causality, based on an area in Mexico that had instituted CCTs, supported the traditional view. There, as people got more money, some of them may have more cleared land for cattle to raise for meat, Ferraro says.

Such programs do not have to negatively affect the environment, though. Ferraro wanted to see if Indonesia’s poverty-alleviation program was affecting deforestation. ...

Ferraro analyzed satellite data showing annual forest loss from 2008 to 2012—including during Indonesia’s phase-in of the antipoverty program—in 7,468 forested villages across 15 provinces and multiple islands. Ferraro separated the effects of the CCT program on forest loss from other factors, ..., “we see that the program is associated with a 30 percent reduction in deforestation,” Ferraro says.

That’s likely because the rural poor are using the money as makeshift insurance policies against inclement weather, Ferraro says. Typically, if rains are delayed, people may clear land to plant more rice to supplement their harvests. With the CCTs, individuals instead can use the money to supplement their harvests.

Whether this research translates elsewhere is anybody’s guess. Ferraro suggests their results may transfer to other parts of Asia, due to commonalities such as the importance of growing rice and market access. And regardless of transferability, the study shows that what’s good for people may also be good for the environment, Ferraro says. Even if this program didn’t reduce poverty, he says, “the value of the avoided deforestation just for carbon dioxide emissions alone is more than the program costs.”

26. According to the first two paragraphs, CCT programs aim to ______.

A. facilitate health care reform

B. help poor families get better off

C. improve local education systems

D. lower deforestation rates

27. The study based on an area in Mexico is cited to show that ______.

A. cattle rearing has been a major means of livelihood for the poor

B. CCT programs have helped preserve traditional lifestyles

C. antipoverty efforts require the participation of local farmers

D. economic growth tends to cause environmental degradation

28. In his study about Indonesia, Ferraro intends to find out ______.

A. its acceptance level of CCTs

B. its annual rate of poverty alleviation

C. the relation of CCTs to its forest loss

D. the role of its forests in climate change

29. According to Ferraro, the CCT program in Indonesia is most valuable in that ______.

A. it will benefit other Asian countries

B. it will reduce regional inequality

C. it can protect the environment

D. it can boost grain production

30. What is the text centered on?

A. The effects of a program.

B. The debates over a program.

C. The process of a study.

D. The transferability of a study.

26. 【答案】B(help poor families get better off)

【解析】本题为细节题。根据题干关键词first two paragraphs,CCT programs和aim to定位到第二段②句,其中aim to对应are designed to:Called conditional cash transfers or CCTs, these social assistance programs are designed to reduce inequality and break the cycle of poverty。help poor families get better off是对break the cycle of poverty的同义替换。所以本题选B。

27. 【答案】D(economic growth tends to cause environmental degradation)

【解析】本题为例证题。根据题干关键词The study based on an area in Mexico定位到第四段③句,再找到前面的论点句:That’s because economic growth can be correlated with environmental degradation, while protecting the environment is sometimes correlated with greater poverty。所以本题选D。

28. 【答案】C(the relation of CCTs to its forest loss)

【解析】本题为细节题。根据题干关键词Indonesia和Ferraro,并结合题文同序原则定位到第五段②句:Ferraro wanted to see if Indonesia’s poverty-alleviation program was affecting deforestation。the relation of CCTs to its forest loss是对Indonesia’s poverty-alleviation program was affecting deforestation的同义替换,其中CCTs对应Indonesia’s poverty-alleviation program,forest loss对应deforestation。所以本题选C。

29. 【答案】C(it can protect the environment)

【解析】本题为细节题。根据题干关键词Ferraro,program和valuable定位到第八段④句:Even if this program didn’t reduce poverty, he says, “the value of the avoided deforestation just for carbon dioxide emissions alone is more than the program costs.”。由④句可知,Ferraro认为“即使CCT项目不能减少贫困,仅就二氧化碳排放量而言,避免森林砍伐的价值也超过了该项目的成本”。故可推知Ferraro认为CCT项目能够保护环境,因此具有重要价值。所以本题选C。

30. 【答案】A(The effects of a program.)

【解析】本题为主旨大意题。文章首段由印度尼西亚的rate of deforestation has slowed in pace(森林砍伐速度下降)以及推动该转变的antipoverty program(扶贫项目)引出话题;随后二至四段指出旨在扶贫的CCT项目重视经济发展,这可能会对环境产生不良影响;五至八段作者借经济学家Ferraro的研究指出,CCT项目其实有助于减少森林砍伐量,反而对保护环境有积极影响。故本文集中讨论了CCT项目对于环境的effects(影响),A项符合。所以本题选A。

Text 3

As a historian who’s always searching for the text or the image that makes us re-evaluate the past, I’ve become preoccupied with looking for photographs that show our Victorian ancestors smiling (what better way to shatter the image of 19th-century prudery?). I’ve found quite a few, and—since I started posting them on Twitter—they have been causing quite a stir. People have been surprised to see evidence that Victorians had fun and could, and did, laugh. They are noting that the Victorians suddenly seem to become more human as the hundred-or-so years that separate us fade away through our common experience of laughter.

Of course, I need to concede that my collection of ‘Smiling Victorians’ makes up only a tiny percentage of the vast catalogue of photographic portraiture created between 1840 and 1900, ... How do we explain this trend?

During the 1840s and 1850s, in the early days of photography, exposure times were notoriously long: the daguerreotype photographic method (producing an image on a silvered copper plate) could take several minutes to complete, .., and so a non-committal blank stare became the norm.

But exposure times were much quicker by the 1880s, and the introduction of the Box Brownie and other portable cameras meant that, though slow by today’s digital standards, the exposure was almost instantaneous. Spontaneous smiles were relatively easy to capture by the 1890s, so we must look elsewhere for an explanation of why Victorians still hesitated to smile.

One explanation might be the loss of dignity displayed through a cheesy grin. “Nature gave us lips to conceal our teeth,” ran one popular Victorian saying, alluding to the fact that before the birth of proper dentistry, mouths were often in a shocking state of hygiene. A flashing set of healthy and clean, regular ‘pearly whites’ was a rare sight in Victorian society, the preserve of the super-rich (and even then, dental hygiene was not guaranteed).

A toothy grin (especially when there were gaps or blackened teeth) lacked class: drunks, tramps and music hall performers might gurn and grin with a smile as wide as Lewis Carroll’s gum-exposing Cheshire Cat, but it was not a becoming look for properly bred persons. Even Mark Twain, a man who enjoyed a hearty laugh, said that when it came to photographic portraits there could be “nothing more damning than a silly, foolish smile fixed forever”.

31. According to Paragraph 1, the author’s posts on Twitter ______.

A. changed people’s impression of the Victorians

B. highlighted social media’s role in Victorian studies

C. re-evaluated the Victorians’ notion of public image

D. illustrated the development of Victorian photography

32. What does the author say about the Victorian portraits he has collected?

A. They are in popular use among historians.

B. They are rare among photographs of that age.

C. They mirror 19th-century social conventions.

D. They show effects of different exposure times.

33. What might have kept the Victorians from smiling for pictures in the 1890s?

A. Their inherent social sensitiveness.

B. Their tension before the camera.

C. Their distrust of new inventions.

D. Their unhealthy dental condition.

34. Mark Twain is quoted to show that the disapproval of smiles in pictures was ______.

A. a deep-root belief

B. a misguided attitude

C. a controversial view

D. a thought-provoking idea

35. Which of the following questions does the text answer?

A. Why did most Victorians look stern in photographs?

B. When did the Victorians start to view photographs?

C. What made photography develop slowly in the Victorian period?

D. How did smiling in photographs become a post-Victorian norm?

31. 【答案】A(changed people’s impression of the Victorians)

【解析】本题为细节题。根据题干关键词Paragraph 1和the author’s posts on Twitter定位到第一段②句:I’ve found quite a few, and—since I started posting them on Twitter—they have been causing quite a stir。③句进一步解释stir,即People have been surprised to see evidence that Victorians had fun and could, and did, laugh。A项changed people’s impression of the Victorians是对该句的概括。所以本题选A。

32. 【答案】B(They are rare among photographs of that age.)

【解析】本题为细节题。根据题干关键词the Victorian portraits he has collected定位到第二段①句中的my collection of ‘Smiling Victorians’ makes up only a tiny percentage of the vast catalogue of photographic portraiture created between 1840 and 1900。They are rare among photographs of that age是对makes up only a tiny percentage of the vast catalogue of photographic portraiture created between 1840 and 1900的概括总结。所以本题选B。

33. 【答案】D(Their unhealthy dental condition.)

【解析】本题为细节题。根据题干关键词kept the Victorians from smiling for pictures in the 1890s定位到第四段②句Spontaneous smiles were relatively easy to capture by the 1890s, so we must look elsewhere for an explanation of why Victorians still hesitated to smile。该句指出在19世纪90年代,自然的微笑相对容易捕捉,因此需要寻找其他的原因。紧接着第五段作出另一种可能的解释,其中第五段②句中的before the birth of proper dentistry, mouths were often in a shocking state of hygiene说明了口腔卫生状况常常令人震惊,导致维多利亚人拍照时不露齿笑,对应了Their unhealthy dental condition。所以本题选D。

34. 【答案】A(a deep-root belief)

【解析】本题为例证题。根据题干关键词Mark Twain定位到第六段②句,该句引用了Mark Twain的具体话语。再向前寻找他所要证明的观点,从而定位到第六段①句A toothy grin (especially when there were gaps or blackened teeth) lacked class,即“露齿微笑缺少修养”,这是一种根深蒂固的观念,对应A项a deep-root belief。所以本题选A。

35. 【答案】A(Why did most Victorians look stern in photographs?)

【解析】本题为主旨大意题。全文前两段提出维多利亚时代人们拍照时普遍不会微笑这一现象,接下来第三段至第六段分别从曝光时间,牙齿健康状况以及固有观念这三方面分析现象背后的原因,因此A项Why did most Victorians look stern in photographs?是对原文主旨的概括。所以本题选A。

Text 4

From the early days of broadband, advocates for consumers and web-based companies worried that the cable and phone companies selling broadband internet connections had the power and incentive to favor their own or their partners’ websites and services over those of their rivals. That’s why there has been such a strong demand for rules that would prevent broadband providers from picking winners and losers online, preserving the freedom and innovation that have been the lifeblood of the internet.

Yet that demand has been almost impossible to fill—in part because of pushback from broadband providers, ..., it only prolonged the fight. At issue before the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit was the latest take of the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) on net neutrality, adopted on a party-line vote in 2017. The Republican-penned order not only eliminated the strict net neutrality rules the FCC had adopted when it had a Democratic majority in 2015, but rejected the commission’s authority to require broadband providers to do much of anything beyond disclosing information about their services. The order also declared that state and local governments couldn’t regulate broadband providers either.

The commission argued that the Federal Trade Commission and the U.S. Department of Justice would protect consumers and websites against anti-competitive behavior, such as a broadband-providing conglomerate like AT&T favoring its own video-streaming service at the expense of Netflix and Apple TV. Yet the FCC also ended the investigations of broadband providers that imposed data caps on their rivals’ streaming services but not their own.

On Tuesday, the appeals court unanimously upheld the 2017 order deregulating broadband providers, ...,” and said Congress or the Supreme Court could intervene to “avoid trapping internet regulation in technological anachronism.”

In the meantime, the court threw out the FCC’s attempt to block all state rules on net neutrality, while preserving the commission’s power to preempt individual state laws that undermine its order. ..., which enacted a tough net neutrality law in the wake of the FCC’s abdication.

The endless legal battles and back-and-forth at the FCC cry out for Congress to act. It needs to give the commission explicit authority once and for all to bar broadband providers from meddling in the traffic on their network and to create clear rules protecting openness and innovation online.

36. There has long been concern that broadband providers would ______.

A. bring web-based firms under control

B. slow down the traffic on their network

C. show partiality in treating clients

D. intensify competition with their rivals

37. Faced with the demand for net neutrality rules, the FCC ______.

A. sticks to an out-of-date order

B. takes an anti-regulatory stance

C. has issued a special resolution

D. has allowed the states to intervene

38. What can be learned about AT&T from Paragraph 3?

A. It protects against unfair competition.

B.

It engages in anti-competitive practices.

C. It is under the FCC’s investigation.

D. It is in pursuit of quality service.

39. Judge Patricia Millett argues that the appeals court’s decision ______.

A. focuses on trivialities

B. conveys an ambiguous message

C. is at odds with its earlier rulings

D. is out of touch with reality

40. What does the author argue in the last paragraph?

A. Congress needs to take action to ensure net neutrality.

B. The FCC should be put under strict supervision.

C. Rules need to be set to diversify online services.

D. Broadband providers’ rights should be protected.

36. 【答案】C(show partiality in treating clients)

【解析】本题为细节题。根据题干关键词long been concern that broadband providers定位到第一段①句:From the early days of broadband, advocates for consumers and web-based companies worried that the cable and phone companies selling broadband internet connections had the power and incentive to favor their own or their partners’ websites and services over those of their rivals,题干中long与文中From the early days of broadband对应,concern与worried对应,the cable and phone companies selling broadband internet connections与broadband providers对应。show partiality in treating clients(不公平对待客户)是对favor their own or their partners’ websites and services over those of their rivals(相对于竞争对手的网站和服务,它们偏袒自己或合作伙伴的)的合理推断。所以本题选C。

37. 【答案】B(takes an anti-regulatory stance)

【解析】本题为细节题。根据题干关键词neutrality rules和the FCC定位到第二段③④句,且由④⑤句The Republican-penned order … The order also …可知,⑤句与④句并列。③句指出“在哥伦比亚特区巡回上诉法院问题的焦点是FCC针对网络中立性的最新观点”;④句阐释FCC的最新观点(其中句首The Republican-penned order字面意思为“由共和党执笔的规定”,根据④句提到的when it had a Democratic majority in 2015,即“2015年民主党人占FCC的多数”可推知,The Republican-penned order出台时共和党人占FCC的多数,故The … order指代“FCC的规定”,也即③句所述FCC的最新观点):不仅取消了严格的网络中立性规则,而且拒绝了该委员会要求宽带提供商除了披露其服务信息之外做其他任何事情的权力;⑤句补充指出:该规定还宣布州和地方政府也不能监管宽带提供商。综上可推知,FCC采取反监管立场。所以本题选B。

【注】本题也可借助第五段首句提到的the FCC’s attempt to block all state rules on net neutrality(FCC试图阻止所有关于网络中立性的州规)解题,据此推知FCC的立场是“反对监管”。

38. 【答案】B(It engages in anti-competitive practices.)

【解析】本题为细节题。根据题干关键词AT&T定位到第三段①句:The commission argued that the Federal Trade Commission and the U.S. Department of Justice would protect consumers and websites against anti-competitive behavior, such as a broadband-providing conglomerate like AT&T favoring its own video-streaming service at the expense of Netflix and Apple TV。由such as引出事例的功能可知,a broadband-providing conglomerate like AT&T favoring its own video-streaming service...是以AT&T为例,对anti-competitive behavior(反竞争行为)予以说明,因此可知AT&T参与了反竞争行为。所以本题选B。

39. 【答案】D(is out of touch with reality)

【解析】本题为细节题。根据题干关键词Judge Patricia Millett定位到第四段②句:But Judge Patricia Millett rightly argued in a concurring opinion that “the result is unhinged from the realities of modern broadband service,” and said...,结合①句(On Tuesday, the appeals court unanimously upheld the 2017 order...)可知,引号中the result指代题干中的the appeals court’s decision。is out of touch with reality(脱离现实)是对is unhinged from the realities of modern broadband service(脱离了现代宽带服务的现实)的同义替换。所以本题选D。

40. 【答案】A(Congress needs to take action to ensure net neutrality.)

【解析】本题为推断题。根据the last paragraph定位到最后一段。本段首句指出“没完没了的法律斗争和联邦通信委员会的反反复复迫切需要国会采取行动”,第二句进一步介绍国会应采取的行动(句首It指代Congress):需要给予委员会明确的权力,一劳永逸地禁止宽带提供商干预其网络上的流量,并制定明确的规则来保护网络的开放性和创新。Congress needs to take action to ensure net neutrality(国会需要采取行动确保网络中立)是对本段内容的合理推断,其中take action与首句中act对应,to ensure net neutrality是对to bar broadband providers from meddling in the traffic on their network and to create clear rules protecting openness and innovation online的概括总结。所以本题选A。

Part B

Directions:

In the following text, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 41~45, choose the most suitable one from the list A~G to fit into each of the numbered blanks. There are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the blanks. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

In the movies and on television, artificial intelligence is typically depicted as something sinister that will upend our way of life. When it comes to AI in business, we often hear about it in relation to automation and the impending loss of jobs, but in what ways is AI changing companies and the larger economy that don’t involve doom-and-gloom mass unemployment predictions?

A recent survey of manufacturing and service industries from Tata Consultancy Services found that companies currently use AI more often in computer-to-computer activities than in automating human activities. One common application? Preventing electronic security breaches, which, rather than eliminating IT jobs, actually makes those personnel more valuable to employers, because they help firms prevent hacking attempts.

Here are a few other ways AI is aiding companies without replacing employees:

Better hiring practices

Companies are using artificial intelligence to remove some of the unconscious bias from hiring decisions. “There are experiments that show that, naturally, the results of interviews are much more biased than what AI does,” says Pedro Domingos, author of The Master Algorithm: How the Quest for the Ultimate Learning Machine Will Remake Our World and a computer science professor at the University of Washington. In addition, “41. _______________” One company that’s doing this is called Blendoor. It uses analytics to help identify where there may be bias in the hiring process.

More effective marketing

Some AI software can analyze and optimize marketing email subject lines to increase open rates. One company in the UK, Phrasee, claims their software can outperform humans by up to 10 percent when it comes to email open rates. This can mean millions more in revenue. 42. _______________ These are “tools that help people use data, not a replacement for people,” says Patrick H. Winston, a professor of artificial intelligence and computer science at MIT.

Saving customers money

Energy companies can use AI to help customers reduce their electricity bills, saving them money while helping the environment. Companies can also optimize their own energy use and cut down on the cost of electricity. Insurance companies, meanwhile, can base their premiums on AI models that more accurately access risk. Domingos says, “43. _______________”

Improved accuracy

“Machine learning often provides a more reliable form of statistics, which makes data more valuable,” says Winston. It “helps people make smarter decisions.” 44. _______________

Protecting and maintaining infrastructure

A number of companies, particularly in energy and transportation, use AI image processing technology to inspect infrastructure and prevent equipment failure or leaks before they happen. “If they fail first and then you fix them, it’s very expensive,” says Domingos. “45. _______________”

[A] AI replaces the boring parts. If you’re doing research, you can have AI go out and look for relevant sources and information that otherwise you just wouldn’t have time for.

[B] One accounting firm, EY, uses an AI system that helps review contracts during an audit. This process, along with employees reviewing the contracts, is faster and more accurate.

[C] There are also companies like Acquisio, which analyzes advertising performance across multiple channels like Adwords, Bing and social media and makes adjustments or suggestions about where advertising funds will be most effective.

[D] You want to predict if something needs attention now and point to where it’s useful for employees to go to.

[E] Before, they might not insure the ones who felt like a high risk or charge them too much, or they would charge them too little and then it would cost the company money.

[F]We’re also giving our customers better channels versus picking up the phone to accomplish something beyond human scale.

[G] AI looks at résumés in greater numbers than humans would be able to, and selects the more promising candidates.

41. 【答案】G(AI looks at résumés in greater numbers than...)

【解析】

41题标题为Better hiring practices(更好的雇佣选择),空前有hiring decisions(雇佣决定)和interviews(面试),这些话题与G项résumés(简历)和candidates(候选者)相符,且在文意上也是顺承。所以本题选G。

42. 【答案】C(There are also companies like Acquisio, which analyzes...)

【解析】

42题空前提到One company in the UK, Phrasee(一家在英国名为Phrasee的公司),与C项中There are also companies like Acquisio(也有像Acquisio这样的公司)匹配。所以本题选C。

43. 【答案】E(Before, they might not insure the ones who felt like a high risk...)

【解析】

43题空前提到Insurance company(保险公司)和risk(风险)等词,与E项insure(承保)和high risk(高风险)匹配,且43题空前和E项都是围绕“AI对保险公司和保险人的帮助”展开的。所以本题选E。

44. 【答案】B(One accounting firm, EY, uses an AI system that helps review...)

【解析】

44题的小标题Improved accuracy(提高准确性)与B项中is faster and more accurate(更快更准确)相匹配,且B项...an AI system ... helps review contracts during an audit ... is faster and more accurate(AI系统在审计期间帮助审查合同,更快更准确)是一个论证AI提高准确性的事例,与本段小标题即中心相符。所以本题选B。

45. 【答案】D(You want to predict if something needs attention now and...)

【解析】

45题空前提到use AI ... prevent equipment failure or leaks before they happen(使用AI…在设备故障或泄漏发生之前阻止),与D项You want to predict if something needs attention now(你想要预 测现在是否有什么需要关注)文意顺承。所以本题选D。

Part C

Directions:

Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written neatly on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

WWII was the watershed event for higher education in modern Western societies. (46) Those societies came out of the war with levels of enrollment that had been roughly constant at 3-5% of the relevant age groups during the decades before the war. But after the war, great social and political changes arising out of the successful war against Fascism created a growing demand in European and American economies for increasing numbers of graduates with more than a secondary school education. (47) And the demand that rose in those societies for entry to higher education extended to groups and social classes that had not thought of attending a university before the war. These demands resulted in a very rapid expansion of the systems of higher education, beginning in the 1960s and developing very rapidly though unevenly in the 1970s and 1980s.

The growth of higher education manifests itself in at least three quite different ways, and these in turn have given rise to different sets of problems. There was first the rate of growth: (48) in many countries of Western Europe, the numbers of students in higher education doubled within five-year periods during the 1960s and doubled again in seven, eight, or 10 years by the middle of the 1970s. Second, growth obviously affected the absolute size both of systems and individual institutions. And third, growth was reflected in changes in the proportion of the relevant age group enrolled in institutions of higher education.

Each of these manifestations of growth carried its own peculiar problems in its wake. For example, a high growth rate placed great strains on the existing structures of governance, of administration, and above all of socialization. When a faculty or department grows from, say, five to 20 members within three or four years, (49) and when the new staff are predominantly young men and women fresh from postgraduate study, they largely define the norms of academic life in that faculty. And if the postgraduate student population also grows rapidly and there is loss of a close apprenticeship relationship between faculty members and students, the student culture becomes the chief socializing force for new postgraduate students, with consequences for the intellectual and academic life of the institution—this was seen in America as well as in France, Italy, West Germany, and Japan. (50) High growth rates increased the chances for academic innovation; they also weakened the forms and processes by which teachers and students are admitted into a community of scholars during periods of stability or slow growth. In the 1960s and 1970s, European universities saw marked changes in their governance arrangements, with the empowerment of junior faculty and to some degree of students as well.

46. Those societies came out of the war with levels of enrollment that had been roughly constant at 3-5% of the relevant age groups during the decades before the war.

【译文】二战结束后,这些西方社会有一定的高等教育水平(1分),在战前几十年间(0.5分),该水平大概保持在相对年龄群体的3%到5%(0.5分)。

【重难点】本句的主句为those societies … enrollment,定语从句that had been … decades before the war修饰levels of enrollment;其中,those societies指代前句Western societies,译为“这些西方社会”,the war指代前文WWII(第二次世界大战),译为“二战”,enrollment意为“入学”,with levels of enrollment为状语,修饰came out of。

47. And the demand that rose in those societies for entry to higher education extended to groups and social classes that had not thought of attending a university before the war.

【译文】在这些社会中兴起的接受高等教育的需求(1分),扩展到了一些群体和社会阶层(0.5分),这些群体和社会阶层在战前没想过上大学(0.5分)。

【重难点】本句的主句为And the demand extended to groups and social classes;定语从句that rose in those … education修饰demand,放先行词前译出。that had not thought … the war也是定语从句,修饰groups and social classes,从句较长,重复先行词单独译出从句,译为“这些群体和社会阶层在战前没想过上大学”;其中,social class意为“社会阶层”。

48. in many countries of Western Europe, the numbers of students in higher education doubled within five-year periods during the 1960s and doubled again in seven, eight, or 10 years by the middle of the 1970s.

【译文】在西欧的许多国家(0.5分),接受高等教育的学生数量在20世纪60年代的五年期内翻了一番(1分),到20世纪70年代中期,该数量又在七年、八年或十年内翻了一番(0.5分)。

【重难点】本句出现了两个并列的谓语doubled和doubled again,意为“(使)……加倍”,主语为the numbers of students,the number of意为“……的数量”,in higher education作后置定语,修饰students,翻译时放所修饰名词前,in many countries of Western Europe为地点状语。within five-year periods during the 1960s和in seven, eight, or 10 years by the middle of the 1970s均为时间状语。

49. …and when the new staff are predominantly young men and women fresh from postgraduate study, they largely define the norms of academic life in that faculty.

【译文】且当新员工主要是刚从研究生阶段毕业的年轻男女时(1分),他们很大程度上决定了该院系的学术生活规范(1分)。

【重难点】本句为复合句,由when引导的时间状语从句及其主句构成,较简单。其中,predominantly意为“主要地”,faculty此处意为“院,系”;fresh from sth.为固定搭配,表示“刚有过……经历”,此处为形容词短语作后置定语修饰young men and women;norms of academic life意为“学术生活规范”。

50. High growth rates increased the chances for academic innovation; they also weakened the forms and processes by which teachers and students are admitted into a community of scholars during periods of stability or slow growth.

【译文】高增长率增加了学术创新的可能性(0.5分),同样也弱化了形式和过程(0.5分)——在稳定或缓慢增长期,教师或学生通过这些形式和过程进入学者团体(1分)。

【重难点】本句由分号连接的两个并列分句构成,分句一为简单句,其中chance意为“可能性”,for academic innovation作后置定语修饰chances,译为“学术创新的可能性”。分句二中they指分句一中的high growth rates,即两个分句主语一致,翻译时可共用主语;分句二中主句为they also weakened the forms and processes,定语从句by which teachers and … or slow growth修饰forms and processes,其中,admit into意为“准许进入/加入”;during periods of stability or slow growth为时间状语。

WWII was the watershed event for higher education in modern Western societies. (46) Those societies came out of the war with levels of enrollment that had been roughly constant at 3-5% of the relevant age groups during the decades before the war. But after the war, great social and political changes arising out of the successful war against Fascism created a growing demand in European and American economies for increasing numbers of graduates with more than a secondary school education. (47) And the demand that rose in those societies for entry to higher education extended to groups and social classes that had not thought of attending a university before the war. These demands resulted in a very rapid expansion of the systems of higher education, beginning in the 1960s and developing very rapidly though unevenly in the 1970s and 1980s.

第二次世界大战是现代西方社会高等教育的分水岭。(46)战争结束后,这些西方社会有一定的高等教育水平,在战前几十年间,该水平大概保持在相对年龄群体的3%到5%。但在二战之后,反法西斯战争的胜利引起了巨大的社会和政治变革,这使欧洲和美国的经济对接受过中学以上教育的毕业生需求越来越大。(47)在这些社会中兴起的接受高等教育的需求,扩展到了一些群体和社会阶层,这些群体和社会阶层在战前没想过上大学。这些需求导致了高等教育系统的迅速扩张——始于20世纪60年代,到20世纪70年代和80年代虽不均衡但发展得十分迅猛。

The growth of higher education manifests itself in at least three quite different ways, and these in turn have given rise to different sets of problems. There was first the rate of growth: (48) in many countries of Western Europe, the numbers of students in higher education doubled within five-year periods during the 1960s and doubled again in seven, eight, or 10 years by the middle of the 1970s. Second, growth obviously affected the absolute size both of systems and individual institutions. And third, growth was reflected in changes in the proportion of the relevant age group enrolled in institutions of higher education.

高等教育的增长有至少三种截然不同的表现形式,这些表现形式又相应地引发了不同的问题。首先表现在增长率上:(48)在西欧的许多国家,接受高等教育的学生数量在20世纪60年代的五年期内翻了一番,到20世纪70年代中期,该数量又在七年、八年或十年内翻了一番。其次,高等教育的增长明显影响了教育系统和个体机构的“绝对规模”。再次,增长体现在高等教育机构招收的相关年龄段学生比例的变化上。

Each of these manifestations of growth carried its own peculiar problems in its wake. For example, a high growth rate placed great strains on the existing structures of governance, of administration, and above all of socialization. When a faculty or department grows from, say, five to 20 members within three or four years, (49) and when the new staff are predominantly young men and women fresh from postgraduate study, they largely define the norms of academic life in that faculty. And if the postgraduate student population also grows rapidly and there is loss of a close apprenticeship relationship between faculty members and students, the student culture becomes the chief socializing force for new postgraduate students, with consequences for the intellectual and academic life of the institution—this was seen in America as well as in France, Italy, West Germany, and Japan. (50) High growth rates increased the chances for academic innovation; they also weakened the forms and processes by which teachers and students are admitted into a community of scholars during periods of stability or slow growth. In the 1960s and 1970s, European universities saw marked changes in their governance arrangements, with the empowerment of junior faculty and to some degree of students as well.

以上三种增长的相应表现都伴随着其特有的问题。例如,高增长率对现有的管理、行政、尤其是社会化结构造成很大的压力。当一个学院或系在三到四年内,从比如说5名成员发展到20名成员时,(49)当新员工主要是刚从研究生阶段毕业的年轻男女时,他们很大程度上决定了该院系的学术生活规范。如果研究生人数也增长迅速,教师和学生之间将失去亲密的学徒关系,学生文化将成为研究生新生的主要社交力量,这会影响学校的思想和学术生活——这些影响在美国、法国、意大利、西德和日本都能看到。(50)高增长率增加了学术创新的可能性,同样也弱化了形式和过程——稳定或缓慢增长期学者团体接收教师或学生的形式和过程。20世纪60年代和70年代,欧洲大学的管理措施发生了显著的变化,赋予了初级教员和一定量的学生权力。

 

Section III Writing

Part A

51. Directions:

A foreign friend of yours has recently graduated from college and intends to find a job in China. Write him/her an email to make some suggestions.

You should write about 100 words on the ANSWER SHEET.

Do not use your own name in the email; use “Li Ming” instead. (10 points)

【审题】

应用文类型

建议信,由suggestions可判断。

收信人

a foreign friend of yours

写信背景

A foreign friend of yours has recently graduated from college and intends to find a job in China

内容要点

make some suggestions

署名

Li Ming


【参考范文】

Dear Friend,

I am writing this email to you to make suggestions for your job hunting in China.

For one thing, it would be greatly appreciated if you could dress formally for the interview because it is beneficial for showing your sincerity and leaving a good impression. For another, it is advisable to display your confidence when answering questions, because employers are more likely to judge your capacity by your external performance.

I sincerely hope that my advice can draw your attention and wish you to find a desirable job.

Sincerely yours,

Li Ming

【语言素材】

1. 建议求职时要目标明确。

It is advisable to hunt for a job with a clear target.

2. 多和面试官进行眼神沟通可能会取得更好的效果。

Making more eye contact with the interviewer would yield better results.

3. 在面试中保持微笑会有助于拉近与面试官之间的距离。

It is helpful for you to smile during the interview process to get closer to the interviewer.

Section III Writing

Part B

52. Directions:

Write an essay of 160-200 words based on the picture below. In your essay, you should

1) describe the picture briefly,

2) interpret the implied meaning, and

3) give your comments.

Write your answer on the ANSWER SHEET. (20 points)

 

2021全国硕士研究生考试考研英语一部分试题及答案

图画类型

图画说明

写作主题

一幅图

一个父亲和穿着戏服的孩子在对话。孩子问:“爸爸,好多同学说唱戏不好玩”,爸爸告诉他“你不是喜欢吗?那就够了”。

自信


【参考范文】

As is vividly depicted in the photo, a father and his son in a costume are having a conversation, which successfully attracts our attention. What makes the photo more attractive is the fact that the kid says unhappily, “Dad, my classmates consider Chinese opera boring”, while his father replies, “It is good enough as long as you like it.” Clearly, the photo has shown an implied meaning that it is important to be confident, which needs to be given further analysis.

What has been conveyed in the above picture is that self-confidence plays a vital role in our daily life. To begin with, during our lifetime, there will always be occasions when we encounter challenges and get into rather difficult situations. The main advantage of self-confidence is that it gives us the strength to overcome difficulties and the resolution to solve problems. Besides, it is such a positive attitude that drives us to move forward and achieve our goals. Even if sometimes things don’t go your way, you still believe that they eventually will.

Self-confidence isn’t inborn but acquired. It can be learned, practiced, and mastered—just like any other skill. Once you acquire it, everything in your life is going to change for the better.

【语言素材】

1. 其他主题

(1)坚持自己的兴趣爱好 stick to your interests

(2)文化自信 strengthen cultural confidence

(3)鼓励培养个人兴趣 encourage personal interests

2. 作用分析

(1)有了自信,你就能从消极想法中解脱出来,采取符合自己价值观的行动。

With confidence, you’ll be able to be freed from your negative thoughts and take action in line with your values.

(2)对一些人来说,坚持自己的兴趣可能是决定因素,因为基于兴趣的职业选择能带来个人满足感和职业上的成功。

Sticking to personal interests may be the deciding factor for some because a career choice based on interests can bring them personal satisfaction and professional success.

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