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 您所在的位置:内蒙古中公考研 > 备考资料 > 考研试题 > 2021全国硕士研究生考试考研英语二部分试题及答案

2021全国硕士研究生考试考研英语二部分试题及答案

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2021全国硕士研究生考试考研英语二部分试题及答案

考研是很多本科应届生的选择,而选择考研院校和专业是考研的第一步,很多同学还是很想在研究生阶段选择一个更好的学校提升一下。今天跟内蒙古中公考研小编一起了解一下“2021全国硕士研究生考试考研英语二部分试题及答案”,希望能够帮助到小伙伴们。

2021全国硕士研究生考试考研英语二部分试题及答案

Section I Use of English

Directions:

Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

It’s not difficult to set targets for staff. It is much harder, 1 , to understand their negative consequences. Most work-related behaviors have multiple components. 2 one and the others become distorted.

Travel on a London bus and you’ll 3 see how this works with drivers. Watch people get on and show their tickets. Are they carefully inspected? Never. Do people get on without paying? Of course! Are there inspectors to 4 that people have paid? Possibly, but very few. And people who run for the bus? They are 5 . How about jumping lights? Buses do so almost as frequently as cyclists.

Why? Because the target is 6 . People complained that buses were late and infrequent. 7 , the number of buses and bus lanes were increased, and drivers were 8 or punished according to the time they took. And drivers hit these targets. But they 9 hit cyclists. If the target was changed to 10 , you would have more inspectors and more sensitive pricing. If the criterion changed to safety, you would get more 11 drivers who obeyed traffic laws. But both these criteria would be at the expense of time.

There is another 12 : people became immensely inventive in hitting targets. Have you 13 that you can leave on a flight an hour late but still arrive on time? Tailwinds? Of course not! Airlines have simply changed the time a 14 is meant to take. A one-hour flight is now ballad as a two-hour flight.

The 15 of the story is simple. Most jobs are multidimensional, with multiple criteria. Choose one criterion and you may well 16 others. Everything can be done faster and made cheaper, but there is a 17 . Setting targets can and does have unforeseen negative consequences.

This is not an argument against target-setting. But it is an argument for exploring consequences first. All good targets should have multiple criteria 18 critical factors such as time, money, quality and customer feedback. The trick is not only to 19 just one or even two dimensions of the objective, but also to understand how to help people better 20 the objective.

1. [A] therefore [B] however [C] again [D] moreover

2. [A] Emphasize [B] Identify [C] Assess [D] Explain

3. [A] nearly [B] curiously [C] eagerly [D] quickly

4. [A] claim [B] prove [C] check [D] recall

5. [A] threatened [B] ignored [C] mocked [D] blamed

6. [A] punctuality [B] hospitality [C] competition [D] innovation

7. [A] Yes [B] So [C] Besides [D] Still

8. [A] hired [B] trained [C] rewarded [D] grouped

9. [A] only [B] rather [C] once [D] also

10. [A] comfort [B] revenue [C] efficiency [D] security

11. [A] friendly [B] quiet [C] cautious [D] diligent

12. [A] purpose [B] problem [C] prejudice [D] policy

13. [A] reported [B] revealed [C] admitted [D] noticed

14. [A] break [B] trip [C] departure [D] transfer

15. [A] moral [B] background [C] style [D] form

16. [A] interpret [B] criticize [C] sacrifice [D] tolerate

17. [A] task [B] secret [C] product [D] cost

18. [A] leading to [B] calling for [C] relating to [D] accounting for

19. [A] specify [B] predict [C] restore [D] create

20. [A] modify [B] review [C] present [D] achieve

答案及解析

Section I Use of English

1. 【答案】B(however)

【解析】逻辑关系题。观察选项可知,本题考查逻辑关系。比较前后两句语义,即It’s not difficult to...(做……不难)和it is much harder to...(做……难得多),由not difficult和much harder可知,前后两句语义相反,B项however(提示转折关系)符合原文逻辑关系。本题答案为B项。

干扰选项:A项therefore(因此)提示因果关系,C项again(又、再)提示并列关系,D项moreover(而且)提示递进关系,均不符合原文逻辑关系。

2. 【答案】A(Emphasize)

【解析】逻辑关系题。句中one和the other提示对比关系,and前后语义相反。由and后的the others become distorted(其余的就被扭曲了)可知,A项Emphasize(强调)符合原文逻辑关系,即,强调一个,其余则被忽略扭曲。本题答案为A项。

干扰选项:B项Identify(识别),C项Assess(评估),D项Explain(解释)均不符合原文逻辑关系。

3. 【答案】D(quickly)

【解析】语境题。代词this指代前一句的观点,即,设定目标会带来负面后果:只强调一点,其余则被忽略扭曲。本句是对该观点的举例论述。对比各项语义:A项nearly(几乎),B项curiously(好奇地),C项eagerly(渴望地)和D项quickly(快速地)。其中D项符合原文语义,即:坐上伦敦公交车,你很快就会看到这点是如何体现在司机身上的(Travel on a London bus and you’ll quickly see how this works with drivers)。本题答案为D项。

4. 【答案】C(check)

【解析】语境题。观察本段句式特点,可知,本段首句(Watch people get on and show their tickets)与下文为总分关系。作者随后以自问自答的形式,引出在公交车上乘车买票这一场景中几个群体的表现。由前文Do people get on without paying? Of course!(人们会逃票上车吗?当然!)对乘客表现的提问可知,本句要对检票员(inspectors)是否尽到检票责任提问。因此C项check(检查)符合原文语义。本题答案为C项。

干扰选项:A项claim(宣称),B项prove(证明)和D项recall(记起)均不符合原文语义。

5. 【答案】B(ignored)

【解析】语境题。借助前文Are there inspectors to 4 that people have paid? Possibly, but very few(有检察员检查大家是否支付吗?可能有,但是很少)可知,本句对赶公交的人这个群体的提问也涉及到是否买票的问题。根据前文中各个群体的表现可知,他们买票与否很可能也无人注意。B项ignored(被忽视)符合语义,本题答案为B项。

干扰选项:A项threatened(被威胁),C项mocked(被嘲弄)和D项blamed(被责备)均不符合原文语义。

6. 【答案】A(punctuality)

【解析】逻辑关系题。本句为段首句,本段下文与段首句为总分关系,语义一致。借助下文中drivers were 8 or punished according to the time they took(司机根据所用的时长获得 8 或惩罚),以及And drivers hit their targets(司机们达到他们的目标),可知,本句的target(目标)与时间有关。A项punctuality(准时)符合原文逻辑关系。

干扰选项:B项hospitality(好客),C项competition(竞争)和D项innovation(创新)均不符合原文逻辑关系。

7. 【答案】B(So)

【解析】逻辑关系题。观察选项可知,本题考查句间逻辑关系。比较前后两句语义,即People complained that buses were late and infrequent(人们抱怨公交车晚点且班次较少)和the number of buses and bus lanes were increased(公交车和公交车道的数量增加),可知二者为因果关系,即,人们抱怨为因,增加公交车数量为果。B项So(所以)符合原文逻辑关系。本题答案为B项。

干扰选项:A项Yes(确实如此),C项Besides(此外)和D项Still(仍然)均不符合原文逻辑关系。

8. 【答案】C(rewarded)

【解析】逻辑关系题。or(或者)提示选择关系,由or后面的punished(惩罚)可知,C项rewarded(奖励)符合原文逻辑,即,根据所花时长,司机们或接受奖励或遭受惩罚。本题答案为C项。

干扰选项:A项hired(被雇佣),B项trained(被培训)和D项grouped(被分组)均不符合原文逻辑关系。

9. 【答案】D(also)

【解析】逻辑关系题。观察选项可知,本题考查句间逻辑关系。比较上句drivers hit these targets与本句they 9 hit cyclists,可发现,hit为原词复现,提示两句为平行结构,D项also(也)符合原文逻辑,即,两个hit两个目标:前者hit到的是真正目标;后者hit到的是cyclists,意为误撞。由此引出设定目标带来的负面后果。本题答案为D项。

干扰选项:A项only(只有),B项rather(宁可)和C项once(一旦)均不符合原文语义。

10. 【答案】B(revenue)

【解析】语境题。根据后半句you would have more inspectors and more sensitive pricing(你将会看到更多检票员和更敏感的价格)可知,本题与金钱有关。B项revenue(收益)符合原文语义。本题答案为B项。

干扰选项:A项comfort(舒适),C项efficiency(效率)和D项security(安全)均不符合原文语义。

11. 【答案】C(cautious)

【解析】语境题。本句选项均为修饰drivers(司机)的形容词,根据本句If the criterion changed to safety(如果把标准改为安全性)可知,修饰司机的形容词需要体现司机安全驾驶的能力。因此D项cautious(谨慎的)符合原文语义,即,你将会看到更加谨慎且遵守交通规则的司机。本题答案为C项。

干扰选项:A项friendly(友好的),B项quiet(安静的)和D项diligent(勤勉的)均不符合原文语义。

12. 【答案】B(problem)

【解析】逻辑关系题。another提示本句与前文语义一致。根据上句But both these criterion would be at the expense of time(此处criterion可理解为target,意为:但这两个标准都将以牺牲时间为代价),可知,前文在说设立目标所致的负面影响。B项problem(问题)可与前文的负面影响进行呼应,符合原文逻辑关系。本题答案为B项。

干扰选项:A项purpose(目的),C项prejudice(偏见)和D项policy(政策)均不符合原文逻辑关系。

13. 【答案】D(noticed)

【解析】语境题。比较各项语义,A项reported(报道),B项revealed(揭露),C项admitted(承认)和D项noticed(注意到),可知,D项符合原文语义,即:你是否注意到,飞机起飞迟了一小时,却仍然准时到达?本题答案为D项。

14. 【答案】B(trip)

【解析】语境题。根据13题所在句语义“飞机起飞迟了一小时,却仍然准时到达”,及下句A one-hour flight is now billed as a two-hour flight(一小时的航程按两个小时收费)可知,此处,航空公司改变的是trip(旅程、航程)应花的时长。本题答案为B项。

干扰选项:A项break(休息),C项departure(离开)和D项transfer(转移)均不符合原文语义。

15. 【答案】A(moral)

【解析】语境题。the story指代前文航空公司为准时到达而修改航班实际时长,本句是对该故事的总结。A项moral(寓意)与story组成“the moral of the story”,意为“该故事的寓意”,符合原文语义。本题答案为A。

干扰选项:B项background(背景),C项style(风格)和D项form(形式)均不符合原文语义。

16. 【答案】C(sacrifice)

【解析】逻辑关系题。one和others提示对比,and前后内容语义相反。而且,本句与前一句所组成的结构“Most jobs are multidimensional, with multiple criteria. Choose one criterion and you may well 16 others”与首段最后两句的结构Most work-related behaviors have multiple components. 2 one and the others become distorted相似,语义也相近。借助首段对应部分的the others become distorted可知,C项符合原文逻辑关系,即:选择一个标准,你可能就要牺牲另一个。本题答案为C项。

干扰选项:A项interpret(诠释),B项criticize(批评)和D项tolerate(容忍),均不符合原文逻辑关系。

17. 【答案】D(cost)

【解析】逻辑关系题。本句中的but提示前后语义相反。由前半句Everything can be done faster and made cheaper(每件事都可以完成得很快,成本很低)可知,D项cost(代价)符合原文逻辑关系,即:但这是有代价的。本题答案为D项。

干扰选项:A项task(任务),B项secret(秘密)和C项product(产品)均不符合原文逻辑关系。

18. 【答案】C(relating to)

【解析】语境题。本题考查连接multiple criteria和critical factors的形容词短语语义。比较各选项语义,A项leading to(导致),B项calling for(要求),C项relating to(关于)和D项accounting for(对……作出解释),可知,C项符合原文语义,即,所有好的目标都应具有与关键因素(如时间、金钱、质量和用户反馈)相关的多个标准。本题答案为C项。

19. 【答案】A(specify)

【解析】逻辑关系题。not only ... but also提示递进关系,借助understand可知,先确定目标才能进一步理解目标,所以A项specify(明确规定)符合原文逻辑关系,即,诀窍是不仅要确定目标的一个甚至两个方面,而且要理解……。本题答案为A项。

干扰选项:B项predict(预 测),C项restore(恢复)和D项create(创造)均不符合原文逻辑关系。

20. 【答案】D(achieve)

【解析】语境题。比较各项语义,A项modify(修改),B项review(复习)和C项present(展示)和D项achieve(实现),可知D项最符合原文语义,即,实现目标(achieve the objective)。本题答案为D。

【新题型试题】

Part B

Directions:

In the following article, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 41-45, choose the most suitable one from the list A-G to fit into each of the numbered blanks. There are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the blanks. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

[A] Stay calm

[B] Stay humble

[C] Don’t make judgments

[D] Be realistic about the risks

[E] Decide whether to wait

[F] Ask permission to disagree

[G] Identify a shared goal

How to Disagree with Someone More Powerful than You

Your boss proposes a new initiative you think won’t work. Your senior colleague outlines a project timeline you think is unrealistic. What do you say when you disagree with someone who has more power than you do? How do you decide whether it’s worth speaking up? And if you do, what exactly should you say? Here’s how to disagree with someone more powerful than you.

41._____________________________

You may decide it’s best to hold off on voicing your opinion. Maybe you haven’t finished thinking the problem through, the whole discussion was a surprise to you, or you want to get a clearer sense of what the group thinks. If you think other people are going to disagree too, you might want to gather your army first. People can contribute experience or information to your thinking—all the things that would make the disagreement stronger or more valid. It’s also a good idea to delay the conversation if you’re in a meeting or other public space. Discussing the issue in private will make the powerful person feel less threatened.

42._____________________________

Before you share your thoughts, think about what the powerful person cares about—it may be the credibility of their team or getting a project done on time. You’re more likely to be heard if you can connect your disagreement to a higher purpose. When you do speak up, don’t assume the link will be clear. You’ll want to state it overtly, contextualizing your statements so that you’re seen not as a disagreeable underling but as a colleague who’s trying to advance a shared goal. The discussion will then become more like a chess game than a boxing match.

43._____________________________

This step may sound overly deferential, but it’s a smart way to give the powerful person psychological safety and control. You can say something like, “I know we seem to be moving toward a first-quarter commitment here. I have reasons to think that won’t work. I’d like to lay out my reasoning. Would that be OK?” This gives the person a choice, allowing them to verbally opt in. And, assuming they say yes, it will make you feel more confident about voicing your disagreement.

44._____________________________

You might feel your heart racing or your face turning red, but do whatever you can to remain neutral in both your words and actions. When your body language communicates reluctance or anxiety, it undercuts the message. It sends a mixed message, and your counterpart gets to choose what to read. Deep breaths can help, as can speaking more slowly and deliberately. When we feel panicky we tend to talk louder and faster. Simply slowing the pace and talking in an even tone helps the other person calm down and does the same for you. It also makes you seem confident, even if you aren’t.

45._____________________________

Emphasize that you’re offering your opinion, not gospel truth. It may be a well-informed, well-researched opinion, but it’s still an opinion, so talk tentatively and slightly understate your confidence. Instead of saying something like, “If we set an end-of-quarter deadline, we’ll never make it,” say, “This is just my opinion, but I don’t see how we will make that deadline.” Having asserted your position (as a position, not as a fact) demonstrates equal curiosity about other views. Remind the person that this is your point of view, and then invite critique. Be open to hearing other opinions.

【新题型试题答案解析】

41.【答案】E(Decide whether to wait)

【解析】

该段首句为中心句,提到“hold off on voicing your opinion”意为“别急着发表自己的意见”,该段倒数第二句也指出“delay the conversation”意为“延迟对话”,均与E项线索词“wait”对应,所以本题选E。

42.【答案】G(Identify a shared goal)

【解析】

该段首句设置提建议的情境,指出分享观点前需要“think about what the powerful person cares about”(想想那些有权利的人关心什么), 第二句也提到“higher purpose”(更高的目标)。同时倒数第二句中的“shared goal”(共同目标)是G项实词在原文中的复现,所以本题选G。

43.【答案】F(Ask permission to disagree)

【解析】

该段倒数第二句话提出作者本段所提建议能产生的效果。“This gives” 前后连接建议内容和潜在结果。作者将具体建议内容举例为“You can say …‘Would that be OK?’”,效果部分提到“choice”和“they say yes”,由此看出,建议是与“请求许可”相关,与F项“Ask permission”对应,所以本题选F。

44.【答案】A(Stay calm)

【解析】

本题通过段首和倒数第二句解题。段首描述情境,提出建议。前半句“heart racing”和“face turning red”表明紧张的状态,“But”用转折结构说明需要遏制前面提到的状态,故建议应意为“使不紧张”。倒数第二句总结评论作者本段所提的建议,其中“help the other person calm down”与A项中关键词“calm”对应,所以本题选A。

45.【答案】B (Stay humble)

【解析】

该段所提建议的中心句为段末句,“Be open to hearing other opinions”意为“对他人观点保持开放态度”,与B项线索词最为接近。且段内“invite critique”(请别人评判)也与B项“humble”谦逊和虚心的含义对应,所以本题选B。

Section II Reading Comprehension

Part A

Directions:

Read the following four texts. Answer the questions after each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)

Text 1

“Reskilling” is something that sounds like a buzzword but is actually a requirement if we plan to have a future where a lot of would-be workers do not get left behind. We know we are moving into a period where the jobs in demand will change rapidly, as will the requirements of the jobs that remain. Research by the World Economic Forum finds that on average 42 per cent of the “core skills” within job roles will change by 2022. That is a very short timeline.

The question of who should pay for reskilling is a thorny one. For individual companies, the temptation is always to let go of workers whose skills are no longer in demand and replace them with those whose skills are. That does not always happen. AT&T is often given as the gold standard of a company that decided to do a massive reskilling program rather than go with a fire-and-hire strategy. Other companies had also pledged to create their own plans. When the skills mismatch is in the broader economy, though, the focus usually turns to government to handle. Efforts in Canada and elsewhere have been arguably languid at best, and have given us a situation where we frequently hear of employers begging for workers, even at times and in regions where unemployment is high.

With the pandemic, unemployment is very high indeed. In February, at 3.5 per cent and 5.5 per cent respectively, unemployment rates in Canada and the United States were at generational lows and worker shortages were everywhere. As of May, those rates had spiked up to 13.3 per cent and 13.7 per cent, and although many worker shortages had disappeared, not all had done so. In the medical field, to take an obvious example, the pandemic meant that there were still clear shortages of doctors, nurses and other medical personnel.

Of course, it is not like you can take an unemployed waiter and train him to be a doctor in a few weeks. But even if you cannot close that gap, maybe you can close others, and doing so would be to the benefit of all concerned. That seems to be the case in Sweden: When forced to furlough 90 per cent of their cabin staff, Scandinavian Airlines decided to start up a short retraining program that reskilled the laid-off workers to support hospital staff. The effort was a collective one and involved other companies as well as a Swedish university.

21. Research by the World Economic Forum suggests ______.

A. a controversy about the “core skills”

B. an increase in full-time employment

C. an urgent demand for new job skills

D. a steady growth of job opportunities

22. AT&T is cited to show ______.

A. an immediate need for government support

B. an alternative to the fire-and-hire strategy

C. the characteristics of reskilling programs

D. the importance of staff appraisal standards

23. Efforts to resolve the skills mismatch in Canada ______.

A. have appeared to be insufficient

B. have driven up labour costs

C. have proved to be inconsistent

D. have met with fierce opposition

24. We can learn from Paragraph 3 that there was ______.

A. a sign of economic recovery

B. a call for policy adjustment

C. a change in hiring practices

D. a lack of medical workers

25. Scandinavian Airlines decided to ______.

A. create job vacancies for the unemployed

B. retrain their cabin staff for better services

C. prepare their laid-off workers for other jobs

D. finance their staff’s college education

【Text 1答案解析】

21.【答案】C(an urgent demand for new job skills)

【解析】本题为细节题。根据题干关键词Research by the World Economic Forum定位到第一段③句,由42 per cent of the “core skills” within job roles will change可知大量工作“核心技能”将发生变化。C项an urgent demand for new job skills(对新工作技能的迫切需求)符合题意。所以本题选C。

22.【答案】B(an alternative to the fire-and-hire strategy)

【解析】本题为例证题。根据题干关键词AT&T定位到第二段④句:AT&T is often given as the gold standard of a company that decided to do a massive reskilling program rather than go with a fire-and-hire strategy。B项an alternative to the fire-and-hire strategy(解雇和雇佣策略的替代方案)是对rather than go with a fire-and-hire strategy(而不是推行解雇和雇佣策略)的同义替换。所以本题选B。

23.【答案】A(have appeared to be insufficient)

【解析】本题为细节题。根据题干关键词skills mismatch、Canada定位到第二段⑦句:Efforts in Canada and elsewhere have been arguably languid at best, and have given us a situation where we frequently hear of employers begging for workers, even at times and in regions where unemployment is high。A项have appeared to be insufficient(似乎不够)是对⑦句中languid(虚弱无力的),以及“employers begging for workers VS unemployment is high(雇主缺人VS失业率高)”这一困境的合理概括。所以本题选A。

24.【答案】D(a lack of medical workers)

【解析】本题为细节题。根据题干Paragraph 3定位到第三段。本段①句是论点“疫情期间失业率很高”。②③句是数据论据;④句是事例论据,以医疗领域为例,证明人员的紧缺。D项a lack of medical workers(医疗工作者短缺)对应④句there were still clear shortages of doctors, nurses and other medical personnel。所以本题选D。

25.【答案】C(prepare their laid-off workers for other jobs)

【解析】本题为细节题。根据题干关键词Scandinavian Airlines decided to定位到第四段③句Scandinavian Airlines decided to start up a short retraining program that reskilled the laid-off workers to support hospital staff。C项prepare their laid-off workers for other jobs(帮助他们的失业员工为其它工作做准备)对应③句reskilled the laid-off workers to support hospital staff。所以本题选C。

【Text 2】

With the global population predicted to hit close to 10 billion by 2050, and forecasts that agricultural production in some regions will need to nearly double to keep pace, food security is increasingly making headlines. In the UK, it has become a big talking point recently too, for a rather particular reason: Brexit.

Brexit is seen by some as an opportunity to reverse a recent trend towards the UK importing food. The country produces only about 60 per cent of the food it eats, down from almost three-quarters in the late 1980s. A move back to self-sufficiency, the argument goes, would boost the farming industry, political sovereignty and even the nation’s health. Sounds great—but how feasible is this vision?

According to a report on UK food production from the University of Leeds, UK, 85 per cent of the country’s total land area is associated with meat and dairy production. That supplies 80 per cent of what is consumed, so even covering the whole country in livestock farms wouldn’t allow us to cover all our meat and dairy needs.

There are many caveats to those figures, but they are still grave. To become much more self-sufficient, the UK would need to drastically reduce its consumption of animal foods, and probably also farm more intensively—meaning fewer green fields, and more factory-style production.

But switching to a mainly plant-based diet wouldn’t help. There is a good reason why the UK is dominated by animal husbandry: most of its terrain doesn’t have the right soil or climate to grow crops on a commercial basis. Just 25 per cent of the country’s land is suitable for crop-growing, most of which is already occupied by arable fields. Even if we converted all the suitable land to fields of fruit and veg—which would involve taking out all the nature reserves and removing thousands of people from their homes—we would achieve only a 30 per cent boost in crop production.

Just 23 per cent of the fruit and vegetables consumed in the UK are currently home-grown, so even with the most extreme measures we could meet only 30 per cent of our fresh produce needs. That is before we look for the space to grow the grains, sugars, seeds and oils that provide us with the vast bulk of our current calorie intake.

26. Some people argue that food self-sufficiency in the UK would .

A. be hindered by its population growth

B. contribute to the nation’s well-being

C. become a priority of the government

D. pose a challenge to its farming industry

27. The report by the University of Leeds shows that in the UK .

A. farmland has been inefficiently utilized

B. factory-style production needs reforming

C. most land is used for meat and dairy production

D. more green fields will be converted for farming

28. Crop-growing in the UK is restricted due to .

A. its farming technology

B. its dietary tradition

C. its natural conditions

D. its commercial interests

29. It can be learned from the last paragraph that British people .

A. rely largely on imports for fresh produce

B. enjoy a steady rise in fruit consumption

C. are seeking effective ways to cut calorie intake

D. are trying to grow new varieties of grains

30. The author’s attitude to food self-sufficiency in the UK is .

A. defensive

B. doubtful

C. tolerant

D. optimistic

【Text 2答案解析】

26.【答案】B(contribute to the nation’s well-being)

【解析】本题为细节题。根据题干关键词food self-sufficiency定位到第二段③句:A move back to self-sufficiency, the argument goes, would boost the farming industry, political sovereignty and even the nation’s health。contribute to是对boost的同义替换,well-being是对health的同义替换。所以本题选B。

27.【答案】C(most land is used for meat and dairy production)

【解析】本题为细节题。根据题干关键词The report by the University of Leeds定位到第三段①句:According to a report on UK food production from the University of Leeds, UK, 85 per cent of the country’s total land area is associated with meat and dairy production。most land is used for meat and dairy production对应85 per cent of the country’s total land area is associated with meat and dairy production。所以本题选C。

28.【答案】C(its natural conditions)

【解析】本题为细节题。根据题干关键词Crop-growing is restricted先定位到第五段③句:Just 25 per cent of the country’s land is suitable for crop-growing, most of which is already occupied by arable fields,但该句并没有解释英国农作物种植受限的原因。②句指出,“英国以畜牧业为主是有充分理由的:其大部分地区的土壤或气候不适合农作物商业化种植”(There is a good reason why the UK is dominated by animal husbandry: most of its terrain doesn’t have the right soil or climate to grow crops on a commercial basis),由此可得知,英国农作物种植受限是因为其缺少适合的土壤和气候,属于自然环境因素。natural conditions是对soil or climate的概括。所以本题选C。

29.【答案】A(rely largely on imports for fresh produce)

【解析】本题为细节题。根据题干中的the last paragraph模糊定位到最后一段,①句指出,“目前,英国人食用的果蔬中只有23%是本土产出的,因此,尽管我们用尽所有的方法,也只能满足30%的新鲜农产品需求”(Just 23 per cent of the fruit and vegetables consumed in the UK are currently home-grown, so even with the most extreme measures we could meet only 30 per cent of our fresh produce needs.),由此可得知,英国人对新鲜农产品的需求不能仅仅依靠国内提供,大部分要依赖于进口。所以本题选A。

30.【答案】B(doubtful)

【解析】本题为态度题。题干中的关键词food self-sufficiency为本文话题词,首次出现在第二段③句,然后④句对此提出问题:听起来不错——但这种(自给自足的)愿景可行吗?(Sounds great—but how feasible is this vision?)。随后,作者从第三段到最后一段一直在论证自给自足的困难,由此可得知,作者的态度更倾向于怀疑。所以本题选B。

【Text 3】

When Microsoft bought task management app Wunderlist and mobile calendar Sunrise in 2015, it picked up two newcomers that were attracting considerable buzz in Silicon Valley. Microsoft’s own Office dominates the market for “productivity” software, but the start-ups represented a new wave of technology designed from the ground up for the smartphone world.

Both apps, however, were later scrapped, after Microsoft said it had used their best features in its own products. Their teams of engineers stayed on, making them two of the many “acqui-hires” that the biggest companies have used to feed their insatiable hunger for tech talent.

To Microsoft’s critics, the fates of Wunderlist and Sunrise are examples of a remorseless drive by Big Tech to chew up any innovative companies that lie in their path. “They bought the seedlings and closed them down,” complained Paul Arnold, a partner at San Francisco-based Switch Ventures, putting paid to businesses that might one day turn into competitors. Microsoft declined to comment.

Like other start-up investors, Mr Arnold’s own business often depends on selling start-ups to larger tech companies, though he admits to mixed feelings about the result: “I think these things are good for me, if I put my selfish hat on. But are they good for the American economy? I don’t know.”

The US Federal Trade Commission says it wants to find the answer to that question. This week, it asked the five most valuable US tech companies for information about their many small acquisitions over the past decade. Although only a research project at this stage, the request has raised the prospect of regulators wading into early-stage tech markets that until now have been beyond their reach.

Given their combined market value of more than $5.5tn, rifling through such small deals — many of them much less prominent than Wunderlist and Sunrise — might seem beside the point. Between them, the five companies (Apple, Microsoft, Google, Amazon and Facebook) have spent an average of only $3.4bn a year on sub-$1bn acquisitions over the past five years — a drop in the ocean compared with their massive financial reserves, and the more than $130bn of venture capital that was invested in the US last year.

However, critics say that the big companies use such deals to buy their most threatening potential competitors before their businesses have a chance to gain momentum, in some cases as part of a “buy and kill” tactic to simply close them down.

31. What is true about Wunderlist and Sunrise after their acquisitions?

A. Their market values declined.

B. Their engineers were retained.

C. Their tech features improved.

D. Their products were re-priced.

32. Microsoft’s critics believe that the big tech companies tend to .

A. exaggerate their product quality

B. treat new tech talent unfairly

C. eliminate their potential competitors

D. ignore public opinions

33. Paul Arnold is concerned that small acquisitions might .

A. weaken big tech companies

B. worsen market competition

C. discourage start-up investors

D. harm the national economy

34. The US Federal Trade Commission intends to .

A. supervise start-ups’ operations

B. encourage research collaboration

C. limit Big Tech’s expansion

D. examine small acquisitions

35. For the five biggest tech companies, their small acquisitions have .

A. raised few management challenges

B. brought little financial pressure

C. set an example for future deals

D. generated considerable profits

【Text 3】

31.【答案】B(Their engineers were retained.)

【解析】本题为细节题。根据题干关键词Wunderlist and Sunrise定位到第一段①句和第三段①句。这两句无法解题,需结合上下文。文章第一段引出事件:Microsoft收购Wunderlist 和Sunrise,第二段介绍这两家初创企业被收购后所发生的事情,第三段介绍批评者对Microsoft此行为的评价。B项Their engineers were retained(他们的工程师被保留了下来)是对第二段②句中的Their teams of engineers stayed on(他们的工程师团队留了下来)的同义替换。所以本题选B。

32.【答案】C(eliminate their potential competitors)

【解析】本题为细节题。根据题干关键词Microsofts’ critics定位到第三段①句:To Microsoft’s critics, the fates of Wunderlist and Sunrise are examples of a remorseless drive by Big Tech to chew up any innovative companies that lie in their path。C项eliminate their potential competitors(消灭他们潜在的竞争对手)是对chew up innovative companies that lie in their path(毁掉挡他们路的创新公司)的同义替换。所以本题选C。

33.【答案】D(harm the national economy)

【解析】本题为细节题。根据题干关键词Paul Arnold定位到第三段②句和第四段。第三段②句指出Arnold对科技巨头将本可以发展成为其竞争对手的初创公司扼杀在萌芽阶段这一做法的不满,第四段进一步介绍Arnold作为初创公司投资人对科技巨头收购行为的看法。D项harm the national economy(损害国家经济)是对第四段中的I think these things are good for me … But are they good for the American economy? I don’t know(我觉得这些对我有好处……但它们对美国经济有好处吗?我不知道)的合理推断。所以本题选C。

34.【答案】D(examine small acquisitions)

【解析】本题为细节题。根据题干关键词The US Federal Trade Commission定位到第五段①句,该句无法解题,继续看下文。②句紧接着介绍US Federal Trade Commission的做法:This week, it asked the five most valuable US tech companies for information about their many small acquisitions over the past decade。D项examine small acquisitions(调查小规模收购)是对asked … for information about their many small acquisitions(向……询问他们许多小规模收购的相关信息)的概括总结。所以本题选D。

35.【答案】B(brought little financial pressure)

【解析】本题为细节题。根据题干关键词the five biggest tech companies定位到第六段②句:Between them, the five companies (Apple, Microsoft, Google, Amazon and Facebook) have spent an average of only $3.4bn a year on sub-$1bn acquisitions over the past five years—a drop in the ocean compared with their massive financial reserves, and the more than $130bn of venture capital that was invested in the US last year。B项brought little financial pressure(几乎没有带来资金压力)是对a drop in the ocean compared with their massive financial reserves(与他们庞大的资金储备相比,这只是沧海一粟)的合理推断。所以本题选B。

【Text 4】

We’re fairly good at judging people based on first impressions, thin slices of experience ranging from a glimpse of a photo to a five-minute interaction, and deliberation can be not only extraneous but intrusive. In one study of the ability she dubbed “thin slicing,” the late psychologist Nalini Ambady asked participants to watch silent 10-second video clips of professors and to rate the instructor’s overall effectiveness. Their ratings correlated strongly with students’ end-of-semester ratings. Another set of participants had to count backward from 1,000 by nines as they watched the clips, occupying their conscious working memory. Their ratings were just as accurate, demonstrating the intuitive nature of the social processing.

Critically, another group was asked to spend a minute writing down reasons for their judgment, before giving the rating. Accuracy dropped dramatically. Ambady suspected that deliberation focused them on vivid but misleading cues, such as certain gestures or utterances, rather than letting the complex interplay of subtle signals form a holistic impression. She found similar interference when participants watched 15-second clips of pairs of people and judged whether they were strangers, friends, or dating partners.

Other research shows we’re better at detecting deception and sexual orientation from thin slices when we rely on intuition instead of reflection. “It’s as if you’re driving a stick shift,” says Judith Hall, a psychologist at Northeastern University, “and if you start thinking about it too much, you can’t remember what you’re doing. But if you go on automatic pilot, you’re fine. Much of our social life is like that.”

Thinking too much can also harm our ability to form preferences. College students’ ratings of strawberry jams and college courses aligned better with experts’ opinions when the students weren’t asked to analyze their rationale. And people made car-buying decisions that were both objectively better and more personally satisfying when asked to focus on their feelings rather than on details, but only if the decision was complex—when they had a lot of information to process.

Intuition’s special powers are unleashed only in certain circumstances. In one study, participants completed a battery of eight tasks, including four that tapped reflective thinking (discerning rules, comprehending vocabulary) and four that tapped intuition and creativity (generating new products or figures of speech). Then they rated the degree to which they had used intuition (“gut feelings,” “hunches,” “my heart”). Use of their gut hurt their performance or the first four tasks, as expected, and helped them on the rest. Sometimes the heart is smarter than the head.

36. Nalini Ambaby’s study deals with .

A. instructor student interaction

B. the power of people’s memory

C. the reliability of first impressions

D. people’s ability to influence others

37. In Ambaby’s study, rating accuracy dropped when participants .

A. gave the rating in limited time

B. focused on specific details

C. watched shorter video clips

D. discussed with on another

38. Judith Hall mentions driving to show that .

A. memory can be selective

B. reflection can be distracting

C. social skills must be cultivated

D. deception is difficult to detect

39. When you are making complex decisions, it is advisable to .

A. follow your feelings

B. list your preferences

C. seek expert advice

D. collect enough data

40. What can we learn from the last paragraph?

A. Generating new products takes time.

B. Intuition may affect reflective tasks.

C. Vocabulary comprehension needs creativity.

D. Objective thinking may boost intuitiveness.

【Text 4答案解析】

36.【答案】C(the reliability of first impressions)

【解析】本题为细节题。根据题干关键词Nalini Ambaby可定位到第一段②句,②句In one study of the ability she dubbed “thin slicing,” the late psychologist Nalini Ambady asked participants to watch silent 10-second video clips of professors ...(已故心理学家纳利尼·安巴迪(Nalini Ambady)在一项名为“薄片撷取”(thin slicing)的能力研究中,要求参与者观看教授们10秒钟的无声视频片段……)介绍了该研究的内容。根据“薄片撷取”(thin slicing)和“10秒视频”(10-second video clips)可以得出,②句作为一个科学实验,针对的是第一段①句We’re fairly good at judging people based on first impressions, thin slices of experience ...(我们很擅长根据第一印象、薄片式经验来判断一个人……)。C项the reliability of first impressions(第一印象的可靠程度)是对该实验目的的准确概括。所以本题选C。

37.【答案】B(focused on specific details)

【解析】本题为细节题。根据题干关键词accuracy dropped和Ambaby可定位到第二段②③句,③句是②句现象出现的原因。根据③句中deliberation focused them on vivid but misleading cues ... rather than letting the complex interplay of subtle signals form a holistic impression(深思熟虑使他们专注于生动但具有误导性的线索,……而不是让微妙信号的复杂相互作用形成整体印象),B项focused on specific details(关注于具体的细节)是对③句的总结概括。所以本题选B。

38.【答案】B(reflection can be distracting)

【解析】本题为例证题。根据题干关键词Judith Hall定位到第三段②句。例证题的解题思路是首先考虑在例子上文寻找观点,找到第三段①句Other research shows we’re better at detecting deception and sexual orientation from thin slices when we rely on intuition instead of reflection(另一项研究表明,当我们依靠直觉而不是反思时,更能从薄片式信息中检测出欺骗和性取向),②句的例子本身是“如果你在开手动挡,当你开始想太多时,你就不记得自己在做什么了”,B项reflection can be distracting(反思会分散注意力)是对①句观点的提炼总结。所以本题选B。

39.【答案】A(follow your feelings)

【解析】本题为细节题。根据题干关键词complex decisions可定位到第四段③句,其中And people made car-buying decisions that were both objectively better and more personally satisfying when asked to focus on their feelings rather than on details(当人们被要求把注意力集中在他们的感觉而不是细节上时,他们做出的买车决定在客观上更好也更能满足个人需求……),focus on their feelings的同义表达是A项follow your feelings。所以本题选A。

40.【答案】B(Intuition may affect reflective tasks.)

【解析】本题为推断题。根据题干关键词the last paragraph定位到第五段,该段指出直觉的特殊力量只有在特定的情况下才会释放,如预期那样,仅凭直觉会影响他们在前四项任务中的表现,而在其他任务中则会有所帮助(Use of their gut hurt their performance or the first four tasks, as expected, and helped them on the rest),“gut”指代“intuition”,“the first four tasks”指代利用反思性思维(reflective thinking)的任务,即参与者在完成利用反思性思维(reflective thinking)的任务时会受到直觉的影响。因此,B项Intuition may affect reflective tasks(直觉或许会影响利用反思性思维的任务)总结概括了本段观点。所以本题选B。

SectionIV Writing

Part A

47. Directions:

Suppose you are organizing an online meeting. Write an email to Jack, an international student, to

invite him to participate, and

tell him about the details.

You should write about 100 words on the ANSWER SHEET.

Do not use your own name in the email; use “Li Ming” instead. (10 points)

范文及解析

47. Directions:

Suppose you are organizing an online meeting. Write an email to Jack, an international student, to

1) invite him to participate, and

2) tell him about the details.

You should write about 100 words on the ANSWER SHEET.

Do not use your own name in the email; use “Li Ming” instead. (10 points)

【审题】

应用文类型 邀请信,由invite可判断。
收信人 Jack
写作背景 Suppose you are organizing an online meeting
内容要点 1) invite him to participate 2) tell him about the details
署名 Li Ming

【参考范文】

Dear Jack,

I am a student who is in charge of the student union. I am writing this email to invite you to attend an online meeting. It will be held online at 9 am on September 1.

The details are as follows. For one thing, it is advisable to know that the meeting is for all international students and about the lesson plan for the new semester. For another, it would be more beneficial if you could register for the meeting by filling out an online form, which is accessible before the meeting starts.

I really hope that my invitation can draw your attention.

Sincerely yours,

Li Ming【语言素材】

1.参会前提前熟悉会议材料是有必要的。

It is necessary to be familiar with the meeting material in advance.

2. 每位参会者都可以畅所欲言。

Participants are welcomed to express their ideas freely.

3. 如果与会者会议结束后提出建议,将不胜感激。

It would be appreciated if participants could make some suggestions after the meeting.

SectionIV Writing

Part B

48. Directions:

Write an essay based on the chart below. In your writing, you should

1) interpret the chart, and

2) give your comments.

You should write about 150 words on the ANSWER SHEET. (15 points)

2021考研英语二大作文试题及答案解析(中公考研版)-中公教育

 

范文及解析

48. Directions:

Write an essay based on the chart below. In your writing, you should

1) interpret the chart, and

2) give your comments.

You should write about 150 words on the ANSWER SHEET. (15 points)

2021考研英语二大作文试题及答案解析(中公考研版)-中公教育

 

【审题】

图表类型

静态图

图表内容

(1)最大差异:选择独自锻炼的人数最多。

(2)原因分析:1)便于安排时间。2)可选择喜欢的运动形式。

(3)预估:这一趋势仍将继续。


There is no denying that the chart depicts the ways residents in a certain city choose to do exercise, which attracts our eyes. The chart represents that the residents show totally different inclinations towards the way to do exercise. On the basis of the above chart, the percentage of exercising alone is the highest among all the parts, at about 54.3%. An analysis concerning this trend should be conducted deeply.

What accounts for the phenomenon? As far as I’m concerned, there are mainly two reasons for that. It is partly because exercising alone makes it easy for people to arrange their exercise time according to their own schedules. Another factor may be that people could choose the forms of exercise that they prefer without negotiating with others when exercising alone.

According to the analysis above, it is obvious that the trend reflected by the chart will sustain for some time in the future. It is high time that people raised their awareness in this aspect.

【语言素材】

1. 独自锻炼可以让你完全掌控自己的锻炼节奏,这意味着你可以制定自己的目标并尽自己所能地努力锻炼。

Exercising alone allows you to take full charge of your workouts, which means you can decide your own goals and go as hard as you want.

2. 每个人在锻炼时都有特定的需求。如果你独自进行训练,就可以根据自己的身体需求调整锻炼方式。

Everybody has specific needs when it comes to exercise. If you’re training by yourself, you can tailor the workout to what your body needs.

3. 很明显,与他人一起运动更容易注意力分散,而独自锻炼能减少来自他人的干扰。

It’s pretty obvious that working out with other people leaves room for more distraction, and exercising alone can reduce the distraction from others.

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